New Brain Imaging Shows the Effects of Withdrawal on Smokers Trying to Quit and How Therapeutic Nicotine Helps

    Former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop and Panel of Experts Discuss
    New Implications for Physicians Who Treat Smokers

    SAN DIEGO, Sept. 18 /CNW/ -- New research highlighted at a symposium
during an annual meeting for family physicians shows how nicotine withdrawal
creates functional changes in the brains of smokers trying to quit causing
cognitive performance deficits (such as ability to concentrate) that may make
it more difficult to quit, and could be a driver of smoking relapse.(1)
Further, brain imaging technology shows that when treatment with the
NiQuitin(R) 4 mg nicotine lozenge (Nicabate lozenge in Australia) is
introduced, these symptoms of nicotine withdrawal can be reversed.(2) This
information is helping physicians better understand addiction and how
treatment can help.
    "The new research provides powerful new evidence as to why physicians
need to intervene and help their patients understand and manage symptoms to
help them quit successfully," said Dr. C. Everett Koop, former U.S. Surgeon
General and driving force behind the 1988 Surgeon General's report entitled:
The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction. "Physicians should use
these new data as reasons to speak with their patients to help them better
understand their addiction, including the serious impact of withdrawal and how
proven treatments can help reverse nicotine withdrawal symptoms that impact
the brain."
    Data from two similar studies were highlighted at the symposium. The
studies reviewed the impact of nicotine withdrawal on the brain and
demonstrated that the NiQuitin 4 mg nicotine lozenge can significantly help
reverse nicotine withdrawal symptoms associated with quitting smoking.(3)
    Specific areas in the brain, particularly those associated with executive
functioning, are impacted during nicotine withdrawal. The NiQuitin 4 mg
nicotine lozenge significantly improved cognitive performance compared to
placebo and lessened symptoms of withdrawal including craving, difficulty
concentrating, irritability and restlessness.(3) Other nicotine withdrawal
symptoms including short-term memory deficit, and selective and divided
attention deficits were also significantly reduced.(3)
    "In withdrawal, a smoker's brain is literally in dysfunction and this can
impair the quitter's ability to concentrate and respond to cues," said Dr.
Michael Durcan, Director of Medical Affairs, GlaxoSmithKline Consumer
Healthcare. "Research on the brain in withdrawal is important as it helps
physicians and smokers trying to quit recognize and manage the symptoms. For
smokers who experience withdrawal and can't afford lapse in concentration or
judgement, approved medicines for smoking cessation such as the NiQuitin 4 mg
nicotine lozenge may make the difference between success and failure in their
smoking cessation efforts."
    Consistent with their product labeling, therapeutic nicotine products are
specifically designed to curb withdrawal symptoms by safely and gradually
weaning a smoker off nicotine. The NiQuitin 4 mg nicotine lozenge has shown in
this research that it specifically improves symptoms of withdrawal including
craving, difficulty concentrating, irritability and restlessness.(3)
    Therapeutic nicotine products, including the NiQuitin 4 mg nicotine
lozenge, can double a smoker's chances of quitting versus placebo and
remaining smoke-free long-term (6 months and longer.)(4) Therapeutic nicotine
products like NiQuitin(R) patch and lozenge, are first-line treatments for
smoking cessation and are thoroughly researched, well-understood and highly
accessible stop-smoking therapies.(5)
    Research from more than 110 clinical trials involving over 40,000
participants have established the safety and efficacy profile of therapeutic
nicotine products when used as directed.(4) Therapeutic nicotine products are
readily available in flexible dosing options.(6)
    About the NiQuitin Lozenge
    NiQuitin is approved to help control cravings associated with quitting
smoking. NiQuitin has a unique dosage selector based on how soon a smoker
smokes his first cigarette in the morning, so he can choose the strength
that's right for him. The NiQuitin lozenge helps people stop smoking by
providing low, safe doses of therapeutic nicotine to ease withdrawal from
cigarettes. NiQuitin comes in different strengths -- 2 mg or 4 mg -- to be
used depending on how soon a smoker has his first cigarette in the morning.
The 2 mg dosage is for smokers who usually have their first cigarette more
than thirty minutes after waking up. The 4 mg dosage is for smokers who
usually have their first cigarette within thirty minutes of waking up.
    About the Research
    The first study entitled, "Efficacy of a Nicotine Lozenge on Nicotine
Withdrawal Induced Cognitive Impairment," conducted by GSK Consumer
Healthcare, was a single-center, evaluator and subject blind, randomised,
placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study in male and female adult
smokers between the ages of 21 to 55 years old. The second study entitled,
"Imaging Brain Cognitive Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal and the Impact of
Treatment," conducted by the University of Surrey, Guildford and funded by
GSK, was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in male and
female adult smokers. The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) which provides a measure of information processing in the brain by
measuring blood oxygen levels to show how the brain works. The test shows how
treatment affects certain areas of the brain.
    About GlaxoSmithKline
    GlaxoSmithKline -- one of the world's leading research-based
pharmaceutical and healthcare companies -- is committed to improving the
quality of human life by enabling people to do more, feel better and live
longer. For company information visit:

    1. Henningfield, J. The brain in withdrawal; neuroscience of treatment.
       Symposium presentation. September 2008.
    2. Boyle, J, Durcan MJ, et al. Efficacy of a nicotine (4mg) containing
       lozenge on the cognitive impairment of nicotine withdrawal. Poster
       presented at the annual European meeting of the Society for Research
       on Nicotine and Tobacco, Padua, Italy.
    3. Matthews, P. Imaging brain cognitive effects of nicotine withdrawal
       and the impact of treatment. Symposium presentation. September 2008.
    4. Silagy C, Stead LF, et. al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking
       cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 3. Art.
       No.: CD000146. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3.  Available at:
    5. Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and
       Dependence: 2008 Update. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD:
       U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service.
       May 2008.
    6. GSK Data on file.

     U.S. Media            Teresa Calanni, GolinHarris
     Contacts:             312 729 4229,

     Media                 Claire Dixon, EU, 44 20 8047 4296,
     of U.S.:              Loic Andre, Colombia, 56 2 3829139,

                           Andrew Macmillen, Brazil, 54 11 4725 8925,

                           Hader Perez, Mexico, 52 55 5483 8910,


For further information:

For further information: U.S., Teresa Calanni of GolinHarris,
+1-312-729-4229,, for GlaxoSmithKline; or outside of
U.S., Claire Dixon, EU, +44 20 8047 4296,, or Loic
Andre, Colombia, +56 2 3829139,, or Andrew Macmillen,
Brazil, +54 11 4725 8925,, or Hader Perez, Mexico,
+52 55 5483 8910,, all of GlaxoSmithKline; Web Site:

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